Niezwykła historia odkrycia losów Juliana Kozłowskiego /2008/
Julian Kozłowski urodził się w 1904 r. w okolicy Inowrocławia. Był młodszym bratem naszego dziadka Stanisława. Z wykształcenia był prawnikiem. W czasie wojny służył w wojsku polskim w stopniu podpułkownika. Zmarł w Szkocji w 1959 r. Nie zachowały się w naszym domu żadne pamiątki po nim. Trudno było też uzyskać jakieś informacje o jego losach.
W lipcu 2008 roku odwiedziła Chełmżę pani Mairi MacLean z miejscowości Morar w Szkocji. Nie spotkałem się z nią wtedy. Aczkolwiek dzięki przewodniczce, która jej towarzyszyła, udało mi się teraz nawiązać korespondencję z panią Mairi.
Julian w 1943 roku wraz z grupą polskich żołnierzy przybył do Morar pracować przy wyrębie lasów. Pracował wówczas z nimi jako drwal. Po zakończeniu wojny zdecydował się pozostać w tej miejscowości i zamieszkać w chacie drwali, która sąsiadowała z domem Mairi. Był zaprzyjaźniony z rodziną Mairi, pomagał im w pracach w gospodarstwie i w pubie. Po nagłej śmierci jej ojca w 1957 r. Mairi będąc wówczas uczennicą spędzała z nim wolny czas na rozmowach, zabawach i grach. Niestety Julian także zmarł nagle na zawał serca. Było to kilka dni po przyjęciu weselnym jego młodszego przyjaciela - Polaka, który także od czasu wojny przebywał w Morar i tu brał ślub z rodowitą Szkotką. Pochowany został na lokalnym cmentarzu w mogile ze zwykłym drewnianym krzyżem.
Julian wcześniej pozostawił Mairi zdjęcie naszej mamy - Marylki z dedykacją "Pamiętaj o mnie Wujku" jako dowód i znak rozpoznawczy, że jest to osoba mu bliska, na wypadek, gdyby ktoś kiedyś poszukiwał jego.
W lokalnej gazecie w Szkocji ukazało się wspomnienie o Julianie.
Community paper for Mallaig, Morar, Arisaig, Lochailort, Glenfinnan
Glenuig, Knoydart and the Small Isles
December 2008 Issue
Merry Christmas and A Happy New Year
to all of you from all of us at West Word
Local Genealogy & History
BORN INOWROCLAW, POLAND…DIED MORAR.
Julian Kozlowski was born on the 11/11/1904 in Inowroclaw, Poland and would, therefore, have reached his fourteenth birthday on Armistice Day 1918. This would have been a day of much celebration in Poland since it marked the first day of independence for the modern Republic of Poland after more than 100 years of occupation.
It cannot be said that peace ensued for, almost immediately, the new Republic came under attack from the Soviet Union in a war which was to last until 1921 when the Soviets withdrew.
The 1919 Treaty of Versailles which had delineated the national borders of the new Europe, following the 1st World War, has been blamed for creating the conditions that led to the rise of Nazism and thereby the second World War but this is not wholly fair as the Versailles Treaty did try to address national issues within the newly emerging states.
The great mistake of the Versailles Treaty was that it delivered harsh treatment for the new German Democratic Republic. The carnage of WW1 was so immense that feelings in Western Europe, fuelled by the popular press, were running high and the raw emotion of revenge prevailed over reason so that the subsequent vindictive humiliation of Germany gave Adolf Hitler his golden opportunity to unleash his sadistic strivings on battle-scarred Europe. As Albert Speer's father commented to his son, after meeting Hitler, "You've all gone crazy" and the German ambassador to Italy accused Hitler and Ribbentrop of "criminal recklessness" when the two madmen marched their war machine east towards Poland on September 1st 1939. It did not take long for Hitler's ally (at the time) to give his support and on 17th September 1939 Stalin invaded Poland's Eastern boundary. Europe was, once again, at war, and for Poland it was to be a very harsh experience caught between Hitler and Stalin.
Thus the thirty five year old lawyer, by now practising in Torun, Poland, found himself as a 2nd lieutenant in the Free Polish Army. Julian was the third and youngest child of Maria and Stanislaw Kozlowski and was, himself, as yet unmarried. By the outbreak of war, both his parents had died as had his older sister, Maria, but his brother Stanislaw was living in Chelmza near Torun along with Stanislaw's second wife, Adela, his son, Tadeusz and daughter Maria. Stanislaw's first wife, Franciska, had died a few days after giving birth to Maria. Stanislaw was fourteen years older than Julian and he was named as Julian's next of kin.
By way of Plymouth, Crawford Camp Brechin, Dundee, Kinghorn and Burntisland Julian finally arrived to work in the Morar Forest some time after 1943…possibly even in 1945…and there he remained until he died in 1959. He lived, very humbly, in one of the woodcutter's "dormitory style" huts opposite present day Shilo and, while the hut was often shared with other woodcutters, it was known as Julian's hut and he was known to us children in the village as Mr. Julian.
Quite a few Polish people worked in the woods at that time and amongst them was another displaced young man who stayed...Josef Yuroscek. Joe the Pole, as he was known, was just a teenager when he arrived and Julian soon appointed himself as Joe's guardian; probably fortuitous for Joe as not everyone who worked in the forest and lived in the huts was as well behaved as Julian.
It was then a momentous occasion for Julian when Joe married a local girl, Marjory MacDonald. He was exuberant on the day of the wedding but, the very next day he became ill with 'flu and died of a coronary embolism the following Sunday. He is buried in the old cemetery in Morar, a rugged wooden cross with no inscription marks his grave.
I was ten years old when Julian died and my older sister and I have many happy memories of him. He had an area of decking outside his hut and, each evening, he would be sitting there as we came home from school so we'd stop off for a while and sit with him as all sorts of topics would be discussed and he tried to improve our general knowledge; but he never referred to his own life in Poland or to the war… except, that is, in the most general terms .
Nobody in the area knew what his past was and it wasn't until he died and Joe went through his papers that we all discovered from where he had come and what his occupation had been. The only significant reference that he made to his family in Poland was on one occasion when visiting our house he brought with him a few photographs and asked us to keep them so that if anyone ever came looking for his grave they would know we had been his friends. He knew that his brother had died in 1956, he thought that his niece was in Czechoslovakia (I may have confused this with Jugoslavia) and that his nephew had not survived the war.
Any letters which he received were heavily censored with large chunks "blacked out" and the story about his niece and nephew had obviously been distorted in this process because, as it turns out, his niece married and lived her life out in the family home in Chelmza and his nephew arrived back from the war, via Yugoslavia, and settled on the Baltic Coast until he died.
I kept the photographs but, but over the years nobody did come looking for his grave; then after reading a book by a Polish journalist, earlier this year, I made the decision to go on a short reconnaissance trip to Poland, myself. Incidentally I have Malcolm and Bob Poole to thank for reminding me about the exact location of Julian's grave.
At this stage I did not know that both Maria and Tadeusz had survived the war and its aftermath so I really didn't expect to make much progress but hoped I could identify some leads for further research.
I stayed in the city of Torun and arranged for an interpreter to accompany me on a visit to Chelmza to try and locate Julian's brother's last known address . I was extremely lucky to be given the help of the intrepid seventy five year old Magdalena who went well beyond the call of duty in our searches. We found the house, intact on Paderewskiego Street, and Magdalena was all for knocking on the door but I couldn't bring myself to do so; I think because I was afraid of discovering a disappointing dead end.
Instead we went to the cathedral in the hope of finding some information through the clergy and the Parish records. However we knew this could all take some time so we arranged that any information would be relayed to Magdalena who would contact me so, with that, I returned home.
On the following Sunday the priest asked from the pulpit if anyone could identify the family and the organist in the Cathedral came forward to say that he could and from his information Magdalena discovered that a Mrs. Sadowska lived in the house in Chelmza; so off she went on the bus to Chelmza but this time, knocked the door as she had wanted to do, in the first place. Mrs. Sadowska told her that she had taken care of the late Mrs. Maria Glowacka (nee Kozlowski)….Julian's niece. Furthermore the house now belonged to one of Maria's three sons who lived in Torun. Magdalena had originally intended to take a photograph of Stanislaw's tomb but, with this information and the fact that her bus back to Torun was due, she instead arranged to meet, Maria's son, Zdzislaw Glowacki. He was very interested in all that she had to say as he had been researching the family tree and building a website giving genealogical information and family biographies but he had never been able to find a trace of Julian. Zdzislaw has now included his great uncle Julian in the family website and if anyone has any memories of Julian I'd be happy to pass them on to the family.
Torun is a very beautiful city on the Vistula River with some astounding examples of Gothic architecture. Apart from some of Stanislaw's brothers-in-law who died in Dauchau and Sachsenhausen, Julian's immediate family (possibly due to their respective ages) survived and prospered in Chelmza, Torun and nearby areas. So why did Julian not feel he could go back? Perhaps the answer lies back in the time, in the early part of WW2, when Stalin and Hitler were allies and Soviet forces invaded Poland. In their zeal, the Soviets rounded up government officials, officers of the Polish army, police, intellectuals and other cultural elites and took them as prisoners; they were never seen again. In due course Hitler turned the tables on Stalin and that meant the Polish Government in Exile which was based in London had then to negotiate official relations with the Soviet Union as allies; but it was an uneasy relationship as the Soviet Union refused to provide information about the Polish "disappeared", blaming it all on the Nazis. In the summer of 1943 the Nazis , by some quirk of fate, discovered one of the mass graves which clearly evidenced that the Soviets had indeed conducted mass executions. The Soviet Union still denied any knowledge and broke off relations with the Polish Government in Exile. As a serving officer of the Free Polish Army in exile Julian, who didn't relinquish his commission until 1949, probably did not have a way back to Poland.
In the early nineties a group of Russian historians went in search of the truth and gave an honest appraisal of the crimes having researched documents, signed by Stalin, giving the orders.
My regret is that I didn't go to Poland sooner, myself, as Maria (Kozlowski) Glowacka did not die until 2006 at the age of 76. The poignant message on the back of the photograph I have of her says, "Do not forget me, uncle". It would have been nice for her to know that he had not.
|Przepiękne widoki z okolic Morar. Tutaj z dala od Ojczyzny Julian spędzał swoje ostatnie lata. Do Polski komunistycznej bał się wracać. Kontakt z krajem miał bardzo ograniczony. Z rodziną się nie kontaktował. Wiedział, że listy z Zachodu od oficera przedwojennej armii, który pozostał po wojnie w Szkocji mogą tylko rodzinie zaszkodzić. |
|Jedyne zdjęcia wujka Juliana jakie posiadam - to dwa ujęcia z pieskami. Jedno otrzymałem pocztą od pani Mairi. Wykonane prawdopodobnie w Szkocji na początku lat 40-tych. Drugie niewielkich rozmiarów trochę zniszczone dziurkaczem było wklejone do rodzinnego albumu. |
W czasach okupacji niemieckiej i stalinowskich przyznawanie się do brata - oficera wojska polskiego w Siłach Zbrojnych na Zachodzie mogło się skończyć tragicznie.
|3||dyplom Juljana Kozłowskiego||1933|
|Wśród akt personalnych Juliana Kozłowskiego w Centralnym Archiwum Wojskowym w Warszawie znajduje się Dyplom Magistra Praw. |
|4||Mama w prasie szkockiej||2008|
|Historyczne zdjęcie naszej Mamy, które posiadał Julian w Szkocji - sądząc po fotografii musiał je otrzymać po wojnie. Z tyłu na fotografii jest data rok 1946. Mama miała wtedy 16 lat. |
|5||Julian w prasie szkockiej||2008|
|Ta fotografia ukazała się, obok zdjęcia naszej Mamy, we wspomnieniowym artykule w gazecie szkockiej "The Road to the Isles" w grudniu 2008. Oryginalny tekst jest wyżej. Pod zdjęciami pomylono podpisy. |
Strona przedstawia historie wielu spokrewnionych rodzin wywodzących się z Kujaw, Ziemii Chełmińskiej, Pomorza Gdańskiego: Głowackich, Kozłowskich, Klimków, Ruckich, Bielickich, Manikowskich, Kurowskich, Michalskich, Klińskich, Czajkowskich, Żyndów
Serwis wygenerowano z programu "Drzewo genealogiczne II" firmy PL-SOFT S.C